Profile of area
Such place is on Polish the ground where wind, sand, forest reigns and swamp. Wandering the mountains from sand, displace about several metres in draught of year, separating sea from lakes. Dark wild forests of, swamp, of peatbog, innumerable the insects' swarms, mammals, birds. Traces after human settlings, remembrance about kicking peat, klumpach and Black Wedding. The land of beauty, wild boar and inaccessible. This the Slovinian Coast the special area of protection of siedlisk in frames of European net Nature 2000.
The region of Sea-coasts this wide Południowobałtyckie on a dozen or so the kilometres the laid along south coasts of Baltic Sea belt. He stretches from Kiloński Gulf after Of the the Vistula Bay. Form this terrain be connected from formation Baltic, glacial epoch and activity Scandinavian glacier, which przytransportował north Poland crushed rocky material, creator morenowe hills at present.
Sea-coast Południowobałtycki is very attractive terrain both under natural regard, as and touristic. It it in borders of region was created was two seaside national parks, five the lanscape parks as well as tens the reserves of nature.
They seaside sceneries divide on: dune sceneries, deltaic sceneries, sceneries lake - bogs as well as sceneries wysoczyznowe. Apart from seaside sceneries region hugs the cut up the net of pradolin morenowe plains also laid below 100 m n.p.m. on which few hills step out.
The the most typical dune scenery steps out in central part of coast. The rise of seaside dunes be connected in main measure with activity of winds, that is with eolian transportation and settling sandy material. The of seaside dunes possible development is on accumulative the section of bank, where sea plots sand forming beach and shore ramparts, and wind winnows on subsidiaries of beaches sand. There tzw. pioneer vegetation: the halofity and the psammofity arrest the sand creating first the accumulative the eolian formed in result of transportation forms and the deposition of settlings by wind. These dunes first forms be called with shadows, when come into being for obstacle on which speed kills wind or dunes embryonic, if they create the strenghten it cluster of vegetation around. Forms these can have had for several centimetres of height to even 1,5 metre. The transferred after grain with gusts of wind dunes wander with speed 3 - 10 m annually covering up all which will stand up them on road. In record summers, near strong, monotonous winds, they achieve even terrific speed 20 m on year. In XVI in. movable dunes threatened Baltic housing estate Leba so, that occupants had to shift about several km building on west, beyond menaced area rambles dunes. The terrain of former city is entirely covered up with sand at present, and dunes attack the next fragments of forest. The movement of dunes stops in moment appearing on them the affirming vegetation. The incessant accumulation causes moreover the development of the vegetation which to one's growth need solid covering up through sand. Vegetation this strenghten on more and more form this larger surfaces. Forms these can at last unite doprowadzając to rise of continuous dune rampart on upper beach. The front dune comes into being then - first from side of sea the dune rampart. Periodical storms can destroy eolian sculpture causing formation with raglet dunes abrasive. However the more far increase of bank causes reconstruction of rampart, his more far extension and the more far development of beach. The continuous increase of bank and the growth of width of beaches causes on foreground of dune the development of vegetation on upper beach. Expanding vegetation this arrests more and more settlings so, that it on front dune hits him less and less. In this way accumulation on front dune dies slowly, and the beginnings of new front dune on foreground of dune come into being again. Near more far accumulation and they come into being the increase of bank more and more this new dune ramparts laid regard me simultaneously. On dunes these together with with outflow of time and the vegetation of next phaze of succession enters the stopping the eolian processes strenghten the sculpture and the edifying the backs sand. Therefore on banks, where many dunes step out the laid the regard simultaneously me or it steps out the shore line, the process of accumulation are stepped out and the increase of bank. The spits in this way be formed - the accumulative the macro form of coast - the sandy barriers the cutting off gulfs from open sea.
Scenery jeziorno - bogs it steps out in several places of coast. The overgrowing lakes of neighbourhoods to the most well-known his examples belong Leba. Their age calculates me similarly, how remembered ok. earlier reaches the Of the Vistula Marshland 6 tys. of summers. They made up then one of Baltic gulfs about high built from post-glacial, morenowych hills banks. Connected from Scandinavian glacier activity left hills these. Glacier left also considerable quantities crumbled rocky material. On result of working of sea waves, strong wind, sea currents as well as the sand, the narrow, sandy isolating from full sea the gulf peninsula began creating. He increased more and more more gradually, until joining both banks of gulf spit created and cutting off her from sea. Between spit and the extensive, shallow lake came into being with banks of gulf, which on result of solid tributary of water and it the organic matter from rivers was wysłodziło was, it silted and it began overgrowing gradually. Next stage, formed on result plotting from land material and overgrowing vegetation, division on several reservoir was smaller. They in this way came into being very shallow, muddy, surrounded with reeds and bulrush przymorskie lakes. The banks of lakes are flat, flat, often messed up. Boggy terrains with rule in vicinity are and bogs, on which it was can go only, when sharp frost skuć it ice-cream. Np. are examples of such lakes Gardno and Łebsko. In draught last 60 years surface lake got smaller about ok. 400 h Łebsko.
The Slovinian coast lies in belt of sea-coasts the południowobałtyckich. The state the northern part of Koszalińskiego Sea-coast, the Parsęty goes on from going away after Cluster the Swarzewską. It be characterizes by varied with form the surface formed first of all under influence the glaciation of Baltic the and activity sea. The elements of glacjalnej sculpture are sketched comparatively faintly, and m.in. represent it front moraines. The extensive sandy beaches of, dune, are the typical element of seaside scenery which height comes to 54 m., and also shallow coastal lakes (Lake Jamno, Lakes Gardno, Lake Łebsko), which they are former sea gulfs from Baltic abscissae through spits. They cut the Slovinian coast across numerous, short, rich in water of river, flowing down to Baltic the or coastal lakes from morenowych hills of Lake district the Drawskiego and the Kashubian Lake district ( the Parsęta, Hog, Słupia, Łupawa, Łeba). They are the largest lakes Łebsko and Gardno. Brown soils are on this terrain typical soils and fawn as well as stepping out on boggy terrains bog soils.
Slovinian Coast this unique in scale of Poland and Europe the area in exceptional natural values, lanscape and cultural. The diametrically different ecosystems on comparatively small space step out - the lake the, sea, the river of, dune, of peatbog, forests and the meadow. This place of nesting and flights of many the land birds' species and sea - the birds' mainstay the written on list of areas wodno - the muddy RAMSAR.
The extensive peatbog and the meadow, large surfaces of lakes the, forests, the wandering dunes, beautiful sea coast - to represent me the more varied, unusual scenery hard. Inaccessible boggy and bog forests they in large measure keep natural character. Seaside forests bażynowe - bright and dry they fight about survival on skrajnie poor soils. Huge spaces of lakes Łebsko and the Gardno contrast from smaller, hidden in forests lakes the Great Dołgie and the Small Madwiny. The movable dunes, then the the most absolutely interesting environment of Slovinian Sea-coast - exotic and beautiful. This all be accumulated on surface 32 744,03 h. In it distance from sea over plain it towers over about height Rowokół, legendary hill 115 m topped with metal scenic tower npm. In past - the important centre of religious cult, first pagan later Christian, as well as the navigational point for sailors and the sailors.
It in case of the Slovinian National Park which agrees in principle from area of Slovinian Coast was one should specify several ecosystems and their interaction. The exceptional values of terrain settled about inscription in world register of areas the park the wodno - muddy about international natural meaning ( the RAMSAR) as well as the inclusion him by UNESCO to net of World Reserves of Biosphere. It it in it was simplifying was can divide on following ecosystems the the whole of nature: was
Seaside forest bażynowy: Unique forest assemblage from ordinary pine, black bażyną, blueberry, bogs, cowberry bogs briar and heather. Growths have with species considerable proportional part Cladonia and Cladina orchids step out: one-sided tajęża, kruszczyk rdzawoczerwony, moreover rarely one-sided gruszyczka, korzeniówka. This poor assemblage is generally, living in skrajnie difficult conditions.
Forests and bog forests, olsy: forests and bog forests are not typical forest seaside however stepping out assemblages set in their composition seaside species here ( bogs briar, European woskownica). Though their part in the whole of forests of Coast is small are this very valuable fitocenozy. The choice composition differs in dependence from degree the hydration of area imperceptibly. They with typical species step out here: ordinary swamp, bogs birch,, verruculous; omszona common sedge, bogs blueberry, bogs briar, deep-blue trzęślica, raspberry moroszka which of position in Słowińskim National Park are comparatively numerous. In neighbourhood of lake Łebsko (płn.- the zach the bank) - the black olsza, with the ears willow, trzcinnik steps out here and there the lancetowaty, turf daredevil. Very frequent torfowce are in moss' company płonnika. Many areas were by decade dried in result of what large changes they happened in choice composition. In "Forest Kruckim" placed pine in many areas predominates, in shrubs' layer beyond birches and crumb steps out with with ears willow in masses. In dispersion it grows here club-moss, daredevil twisted jałowcowaty, szerokolistna narecznica.
The Olesy occupy the also small percentage of area the Slovinian National Park. They step out in many places, mostly in edges of lakes on border of waterside szuwarów. Black olsza in assemblage predominates here and there, birch and exceptionally ash. Forest such is very characteristic and comparatively easily recogniseable. Stepping out in fleece - żywozielonym - ferns growing on necks radicular olszy, green bouquets create. Narecznica krótkoostna and male wietlica (ferns) as well as some mosses how mnium hornum ( groblowy merzyk). They among clusters step out - the dependence from moisture of sbasis: long-haired sedge, karbieniec, muddy narecznica, common tojeść, muddy czermień, torfowce. In several places - more fertile black currant, bird cherry happens, and viburnum.
The marshy meadow jesionowo - olszowy the rich florystycznie is and the most fertile in the whole of forests of Slovinian National Park. 0,2 occupies only just % forest surface not less however this just marshy meadows are the the richest biotopami of Coast. Black olsza in choice composition predominates in company jesionu similarly. In undergrowth natural renovation jesionu as well as thin bird cherry, viburnum and meringues black. Fleece, particularly luxuriant then plant wilgociolubne from nettle, gigantic kostrzewą, adhesive przytulią, forest trybulą. Stinking bodziszek steps out also and forest purgatory. In riverside positions bird cherry, hazel, plant appearing early spring before high plants' development in great number, also many species eutroficznych - among them are written down species only in these places, in Slovinian National Park.
Swamp and peatbog: They on terrain of Slovinian Park of National peatbog are in south part mainly and fragmentarycznie in "Kluki Forest". They are this by dune and lake the the most important ecosystems of region. Extensive peatbog: The Ciemińskie of Swamp and they come in in terrain of Coast the Great Swamp since noon. Secular conditioning klimatyczno - field they formed great and valuable peatbog about large scientific value and their time - also economic. Moreover smaller, younger, peatbog are here also on Brainy Spit choice Composition is dependent from moisture of sbasis. High peatbog step out and transitory. The edifying the trunk of peatbog torfowce in both cases the most numerous species are, moreover the bogs briar the, ordinary swamp, the sedges of, cotton - grass, cranberry, modrzewnica of, the willow's, sundew, woskownice, raspberry the moroszka.
Lakes: The flora of water assemblages differentiates in dependence from zones in what steps out. Two great, shallow lakes Łebsko and Gardno are the remainder of former sea gulf. Waters influence to them Łeby and Pustynki and also different water - course. Essential the excessive growth of plankton is, which causes the fall of transparency of waters. Heightened by strong destroying water winds. Lake Great Dołgie and Small then reservoirs olitograficzne about very lymphs. These two kinds of waters determine the considerable part stepping out in lakes of species. The vegetation of belt of waterside szuwarów then the fire - brand the common reed, moreover the club, rarely joining baldaszkowy, the muddy sedge and sharpened. Lake bulrush predominates from szerokolistną club here and there and jeżogłówką gałęzistą. In they groups they step out: sweet flag, water aspergillum, mozga trzcinowata and different. Coastal waters overgrow numerous yellow grążele and white grzybienie and northern, (jez. Dołgie). In lake great Dołgie grow for tzw. of lobeliowych lakes typical species: Wywłócznik skrętoległy, monandrous brzeżyca, rarely lake lobelia and lake poryblin, muddy ponikło be widespread, skrzypy, ramienice; sierpowiec and krynicznik.
Dune and beaches: Ecosystems beach and dune only in seaside aspect and nieleśnym. Stepping out on beach vegetation then pioneer plants. Sand Wydmuchrzyca, ordinary sand-pit and grey szczotlicha this the most widespread grasses. Sand honkenię, seaside rukwiel by them meets, seaside mikołajka, lepiężniki kutnerowate.
The environment of seaside dunes and movable it is skrajnie poor and unfriendly, therefore the plants' choice composition stepping out in these ecosystems it is not spacious. The majority of sbasis is loose and it does not make possible growth plants. It as first and the most important pioneer plants were one should was sand wydmuchrzycę, ordinary sand-pit and grey szczotlichę as well as sand honkenię. Plants these possess extensive radicular stabilise systems and strengthening sand. Sground growths on comparatively stable soils step out creating frameworks inicjalne bielicowe soils. Dune this area be called grey. In the face exceptionally raw conditions growths' growth be holds slowly and he be braked through pouring growths sand. They on grey dune step out moreover, sand kocanki, sand jasieńce, black bażyna. The belt of somewhat more fertile the ground further from sea begins. They grow here: the ordinary pine, dwarf mountain pine - both come from species mainly from placing in aim of stabilizacji of dunes. Among grasses and they appear sedges seaside violet - three-coloured change, kruszczyk rdzawoczerwony, bifoliate konwalijka, ordinary polypody. To seaside forest further is already.
The dunes, the largest mountains of sand on Polish coast, in large part are naked, no vegetation steps out on them. Considerable przemieszczanie sands, creating fustian, dunes, riplemarków makes impossible life any plants. In calmer places, less subject on continuous pouring sand conditions to development remarkably pioneer plants about, grass;'s long roots find ordinary sand-pit, sand wydmuchrzyca and grey szczotlicha. Enough frequent sand honkenia is. All these plants have the ability of quick development of long radicular clever system to taking necessary water and minerals both it from sand will study dunes how and from the ground. Grass stabilise dunes have interesting, valuable skill. About dawn, when the the sun does not warm yet sale strongly, from głębin of the ground and the sand the plant " it pulls" the water on surface. Water concentrates on leaves and ears - this looks how morning dew - and she be absorbed through plant, moisturizing przesuszać by wind then and the sun organs.
They are separate question field deflationary. These kept exceptional siedliska on Brainy Spit are object of special the scholars' interest exclusively. They are then the place among the dunes, in which the blowing winds blow away the dry sand until to moist staying under influence of land waters sbasis. In these places the succession of vegetation follows on backs of wandering dune directly. The direction of wind is the most often eastern, therefore on western it meets the border of deflationary lowering the the most advanced stages of development of vegetation. They are then pioneer connected with moist environment species. On very poor soils conditions to development find only species about special requirements. Sity, kostrzewy different sand algae zasiedlanie from which begins. Field deflationary they are perfect laboratory it where was can observe on skrajnie poor soils different stages of the plants' succession. Such educated the field partly are secondarily covered up through nasuwający dune often, it happens, that the retiring dune exposes wet spaces and in them protruding from covered up the squeak the blackened remnants of trunks before the trees' years.
Animal world is represented by all animals' groups very richly. Protection among insects' considerable quantity lives near 30 hugged species exact here choice. Molluscs this almost 70 species. In two groups: snails and common małży in Baltic edible omułek creates under-water shoals, in turn fresh-water great szczeżuja is the thinnest shellfish ( it be subject to exact protection). We in track of evening walk to meet the beach zmieraczka can. It is rarity today, it perishes trampled under foot by inattentive tourists mainly. Full important it eats part it, is the orderly of beach, dead organic matter. In many lakes, as many fish's species in waters of sea step out also. Fresh-water fish among 60 species is and sea such are also, which live in salty coastal waters and in lakes. Then dwuśrodowiskowe species - salmon, eel and sea lamprey - representative kręgoustych. Reptiles and represented by almost twenty species amphibians. It toad was affirmed was here: grey and paskówkę, frog śmieszkę, trawną, jeziorkową, marshland and water, beyond this grzebiuszka. Lizards are here viviparous and zwinka, newt: comb and ordinary, blindworm and snakes: grass - snake and zigzag viper. All reptiles and amphibians are under protection.
Protection the area of Coast be hugged and this guarantees quiet and it assembles birds' great quantity. It totality was affirmed was 257 species, in this 144 breeding, more far tens probably gniazdować. In period of flights on waters of lakes and the neighbouring meadows and tens appears to a few hundred the peatbog thousand birds. It proves this great attractiveness of these terrains for birds. We among the birds' great crowd will find both the popular species how the grebes of, crossword, the cranes czy the seaside sea-gulls, sea swallow czy alki, to meet the theses can the great rarities how the eagle owl, bielika, black stork czy smaller; sieweczka obrożna, snipe or rycyk. Mammals make up varied group also. It lives 10 bats' species, in this written down in Polish red book: here mopek, great borowiec and silver-plated scotoma. It it can met was was also - very thin badger, hare szaraka, jenota. We encounter wild boar, roe deer rarely or stag's.
Protection of nature
The protection the Slovinian Coast be hugged in form of national park. Slovinian National Park was created in 1 January 1967r. Second was after Woliński this - seaside National Park. Protection was hugged 18.069 hectares. He became created for behaviour in unchanged beautifully the system of przymorskich lakes, swamps, peatbog, meadows, seaside forests and the forests, and first of all the dune belt of spit from unique in Europe the movable dunes. In acknowledgement for exceptional values of park in 1977 year the programme the Slovinian National Park was hugged the UNESCO the MAB " the Man and the Biosphere", world the list of reserves of biosphere. Wodno coast be written on list of areas also - muddy about international meaning - Convention RAMSAR.
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The General Profile of Pomorskie Province (PDF, 230 kB)
General Profile Słupsk District. Słupsk 1999 (ZIP, 1,6 MB)
Euroregion Baltic Touristic Values (PDF, 140 kB)
Source: Edukator.pl, Bryk.pl, Polska.pl,
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